Plastic Packaging Waste

A case study

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Construction & Demolition Waste

A case study

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Pulverised Fly Ash

A case study

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Wastewater

A case study

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What is Complex Value?

Complex value arises from the assessment of resource flows across multiple dimensions of value such a economic, environmental and social. It may be positive (profit, benefit) or negative (cost, impact).

Adopting complex value demonstrates that “resource recovery” is not optimised simply by matching waste outputs with resource inputs to a system. Designing systems – from extraction, through manufacturing, use and beyond end-of-life – so that complex value is optimised not only facilitates the recovery of resources but also ensures that impacts on society and the environment are fully considered.

What is Complex Value?

Our Research Activity

The CVORR project integrates research from across a number previously discrete disciplines into a cohesive framework. We share our work through publishing on specific issues in academic journals, through conferences and holding our own events. Find out more about how we work below:

CVORR integrates established methodologies across a range of technical disciplines in new ways to address novel challenges. Learn about CVORR's approach....
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CVORR shares its work through academic journals, conference papers and presentations. A selection of these is available here...
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CVORR works in collaboration with the research community and wider stakeholders.  Find out more about our events here...
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News and Events

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CVORR presented approach and first results at the 2017 RRfW Annual Conference https://rrfw.org.uk/results/events/resource-recovery-from-waste-annual-conference-2017/#Schedule ‘Developing a conceptual framework for complex value...

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Dr. Joel Millward-Hopkins' published in Open Democracy

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The Working Group on Recycling and Waste Minimisation (WGRWM) held their Spring meeting in Edinburgh from April 20th – April...

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Dr. Eleni Iacovidou is presenting a paper at the Sixth International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste.  The symposium is...

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